The go-to for weed ID in the Northeast; look for a new edition sometime in 2019. Seeds may be dispersed by wind and water. Unfortunately, we cannot provide individual solutions to specific pest problems. Curly dock (Rumex crispus) is a hardy perennial weed found in most American gardens that is anchored by a branched taproot. A papery sheath surrounds the stem at each node. Fortunately, there is a European weed called curly dock, or dock plant, that is as pervasive as it is persistent. Common names are tricky for that very reason; they change from place to place. Photo by Thayne Tuason. This dock has large, broad heart-shaped leaves, unlike the long, narrow leaves of curly dock. Curly dock (Rumex crispus) is a non-native forb in the buckwheat or smartweed family (Polygonaceae). Curled dock has slender leaves, usually tapering to a point and with wavy margins. Curly dock leaves. Range and Identification of Curly Dock. Caution: The leaves usually contain high levels of oxalic acid. For established curly dock plants, fall herbicide applications are the most effective. Curly dock was introduced into the U.S., possibly arriving as a seed contaminant in the early 1600’s when the British brought crops and cattle to New England 1. A single plant can produce 40,000 seeds. Stems are erect and 1 to 4 feet tall. Curly dock (Rumex crispus) is a member of the diverse Polygonaceae family, which encompasses 1,200 species, including trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs, such as buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum). Learning how to identify broad leaf dock is important for successful foraging. sour dock yellow dock This plant and the related entity italicized and indented above can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Curly Dock Control. This plant is instantly recognizable, and one of the ones that seem to "Spring up everywhere" once you know what it looks like! Curly dock Curly dock (Rumex crispus L.) is a weed of low-maintenance orchards, nursery crops, landscapes, roadsides, pastures and forage crops. If you have a disability and are having trouble accessing information on this website or need materials in an alternate format, contact web-accessibility@cornell.edu for assistance. It looks edible but I'd like to know for sure what it is before I try eating some. See comparisons of horseradish and curly dock below: horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) Curly dock, a perennial broadleaf plant, usually grows in wet areas and is frequently associated with overwatering or standing water in low areas. However, in the similar looking red sorrel plant, the flower parts do not have teeth or tubercles. Perennial plants emerge in mid-spring from taproots, producing a robust rosette. Curly dock is an herbaceous perennial with tall, erect stems. Native species include Slender Dock (Rumex brownii), Wiry Dock (R. dumosus), Mud Dock (R. bidens) and Glistening Dock (R. crystallinus). The leaves of curly dock are hairless, long and narrow, and often have wavy or curly edges—which is where it gets its common name. Curly dock (Rumex crispus) is a non-native forb in the buckwheat or smartweed family (Polygonaceae). Curly dock (Rumex crispus): learn and get advice on how to grow, care, sow, dibble, associate, plant, water, mulch, repot, propagate, reap, check on, identify. Published: April 13, 2015. Mowing will prevent seed production and reduce top growth. Notice that on the edge of the leaf of Curly Dock there is a wavy “crisped” margin and also its relative thinness and “lancelike” shape. The Insect Tablehas a more complete list of insects that feed on Curly Dock and other dock species. Curly dock Rumex crispus L.. Family: Polygonaceae (Smartweed family) Life cycle: Perennial, reproducing by seed Native status: Introduced Habitat: Pastures, roadsides, low maintenance turf, waste areas General description: Basal rosette of elongated leaves (up to 12 in long) with wavy margins.Leaves are a dull green. Leaves: Leaves are shiny, progressively becoming more reddish purple through the season. Curly dock seedlings vary in color, from entirely green to red tinged in cooler months. Curled Dock refers to the curled or wavy edges of the leaves and it membership of the Dock genus. Curly dock (Rumex crispus), also known as sour dock, yellow dock, narrowleaf dock, or curled dock, is a perennial weed native to Europe, Asia, and parts of Africa.Curly dock was introduced into the U.S., possibly arriving as a seed contaminant in the early 1600’s when the British brought crops and cattle to New England 1. Curly dock (Rumex crispus) is a perennial native to Europe, Asia and parts of Africa. Flowering stem has a few leaves and reaches heights of 3 ft. Varieties and Subspecies of Curly Dock Subscribe (RSS) Yellow dock is an ingredient in some herbal toothpastes. Book published by Cornell University, Ithaca NY. . They suggest chopping the plant a couple inches below ground, or any cultivation practice that will chop and bury the plant’s taproot. Corky structures on the outside of the calyx allow the fruit to float on water, thus facilitating dispersal. Curly dock stem, stem leaves, and seeds. Curly dock cotyledon and first leaf. Photo by New York’s Integrated Pest Management program. Curly dock grows in a wide variety of habitats, including disturbed soil, waste areas, roadsides, fields/meadows, shorelines, and forest edges. This plant is about 2-3 ft. wide and tall and starting growing in my backyard in Georgia, zone 7, USA this summer. As a member of the buckwheat family, the plant has a characteristic membranous sheath at the leaf base and usually swollen stem joints (nodes). FOR ALL OTHER USES or more information, read Legal Notices. Flowers are in clusters (15 -60 cm long) on narrowly spaced branches on the upper portions of the elongating stem. The genus name 'Rumex' refers to a noun meaning acid. (source) It is a member of the buckwheat family, Polygonaceae. Curled dock is a very common plant found in gardens, along roadside verges and hedgerows, on waste ground, and by water. This perennial plant is not usually a problem in cultivated row crops. Flowers are visible nearly year-round. Home Blog PLant encyclopedia Subscription What the press says about us Basal leaves can be as long as 12 inches and around 2 ½ inches wide; the leaves become smaller as they ascend the stem. (Note that burdock is a different plant entirely.) It's fairly easy to identify, and grows abundantly throughout all of non-Arctic North America. Curly dock (also called "curled dock" or "yellow dock") is more than just distinctive, it's also useful: curly dock serves as a home remedy to treat stinging nettle burns--though it can be toxic to consume. New green leaves that emerge in spring often are tinged with red. Non-chemical control:  Michigan State University has a detailed profile of non-chemical management for curly dock. Rumex crispus - curly dock - is similar in appearance, but with thinner and wave-like leaves. Identification and Life Cycle. This wild edible has a patter that makes identification a breeze. Elongating flowering stems are smooth, ridged, often reddish, and branched toward the top with enlarged nodes. Although the leaves of this plant can be described as appetizing and a prime source of both vitamin A and vitamin B, it is best to be consumed moderately as it can cause urinary tract irritations. Curly dock has wings of the fruit which are smooth-edged — in contrast to its curly-edged leaves. The fruiting stem dies back in mid to late summer, and the fruits and stems turn a distinctive rusty brown. Curly dock (also known as yellow dock, sour dock, and butter dock, as well as other names) is one of the first wild greens ready to harvest in spring. This plant is also known as curled dock, narrow dock and curly leaf dock. Photo by Bruce Ackley of Ohio State University, via Bugwood.org. The aerial parts are a food source and the roots have strong medicinal values. Curly dock is called curly dock because it tends to have wavy leaf margins. Learning how to identify broad leaf dock is important for successful foraging. This relative of rhubarb is a hardy herbaceous perennial weed native to Europe that has naturalized in the US. Besides curly dock, broad-leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius) is the main species that’s eaten. Contact Webmaster, © 2016 Regents of the University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Fruits are covered with a papery, three-winged membrane with veins. This ugly weed is curly dock, and when the plant is in its mature reddish-brown phase, it isn’t dead; in fact, curly dock can seem nearly impossible to kill. Uprooting plants, chopping and then burying the taproots will control curly dock. Curly dock leaves are lance shaped; those of red sorrel leaves are arrow shaped. Curly dock stands erect and grows 2 to 5 feet (0.6 to 1.5 m) tall. Emergence: Emerges from soil depths of … Copper). For noncommercial purposes only, any Web site may link directly to this page. This wild edible has a patter that makes identification a breeze. New basal rosettes of leaves form in early winter. Dock is from the Old English docce meaning a coarse weedy herb. Sequential applications may be necessary for control. Curly dock's anthraquinones stimulate the areas in the brain that are responsible for regulating peristalsis - the movement of the intestines - giving the herb a laxative … Lower leaves are longer and more rounded than the stem leaves. Curly dock inhabits agricultural land and other disturbed areas. Curly dock grows throughout the US and southern Canada. Docks are in the rumex family, and are related to rhubarb and sorrel and oxalis. [citation needed] Distribution and habitat. See our Home page, or in the U.S., contact your local Cooperative Extension office for assistance. It is widely naturalised throughout the temperate world and has become a serious invasive species in many areas, including throughout North America , southern South America , New Zealand and parts of Australia . Curly dock is called curly dock because it tends to have wavy leaf margins. Younger plants tend to have foliage with less curly margins. As with other docks, it is often considered a weed of arable and disturbed ground, although it may be left alone on grazing land as extra herbage. Other common rumex species include: Rumex obtusifolius – Bitter Dock or Broad Leaf Dock, as the name suggests, this type is generally quite bitter and has large broad leaves. In its native range, different parts of curly dock are used as food and/or medicine. Curly Dock looks just what it sounds like; the leaves are narrow and curl along the edges, they are about 15 to 30cm long and get shorter and smaller as they grow closer to the top of the plant. Get PDF Reader Today's featured plant is Curly Dock, Rumex crispus. This plant is also known as curled dock, narrow dock and curly leaf dock. Yellow dock is an ingredient in some herbal toothpastes. Weeds of the Northeast. Mature plant: Emerging perennials produce a robust basal rosette of 15 – 30 cm long leaves with wavy margins. Curled dock has tall flower spikes with … Identification and control options for weeds common to turf, agriculture, and gardens in New York; uses a very simple decision tree to identify your weed. Curly dock (Rumex crispus) Since the seeds and seed stalks persist through the winter season, you can identify this plant by the fruit’s wings even in the winter. The young leaves are edible but become bitter when warm weather arrives. The succulent cotyledons (seed leaves) are three times longer than they are wide, have a somewhat rounded tip, and a stalk about as long or longer than the leaf blade. Emerging leaf margins are rolled underneath the blade. Stems turn red-brown at maturity and often p… Also, their leaves may be slightly rounder and broader than those of mature curly dock plants. Uva R H, Neal J C, DiTomaso J M. 1997. The one-seeded fruit (achene) is triangular in cross-section, smooth, glossy, and reddish brown. Spring application of labeled herbicides are effective in controlling seedling curly dock. Staff-only pages Emergence: Curly dock seeds germinate in cool, moist soil from late spring through early fall as conditions permit. Cornell University’s Turf and Landscape weed identification app provides recommendations for chemical management of curly dock. The attribute 'crispus' means curled, which alludes to the curly and wavy leaves of this species, as does the common name 'curled dock'. Seeds germinate from late spring through early fall producing seedlings. Weed Identification and Control Library We've chosen the most common weeds found in lawns and gardens, and provided the essential information you need for identifying and managing them. Stems are often unbranched below the flower head. Stem leaves are alternate, subtended by an ocrea, and reduced in both number and size compared with basal leaves. But the leaf shape is highly variable, both on a single plant, and from plant to plant. Seeds are triangular, glossy, and reddish brown at maturity. Stems are smooth and sometimes ridged. Curly dock can be confused with other docks like broadleaf dock (Rumex obtusifolius), however, the leaves of broadleaf dock have heart-shaped lobed at the base and are much wider and less wavy than those of curly dock.Chicory, dandelion and buckhorn plantain also grow in a rosette like curly dock. Curly dock is also known as yellow dock, narrowleaf dock, sour dock, yaller dock, curled dock, Bitter Dock, Bloodwort, Coffee-weed, Garden-patience, Narrowdock, Out-sting and Winter Dock. Curly Dock Curly dock may also be called yellow dock, sour dock, or narrowleaf dock, depending on where they are purchased. For those who need to know precisely and with absolute certainty which plant they're dealing with, use the botanical Latin name. Curly Dock RumexCrispus, commonly referred to as “Curly Dock”, is a safe selection for a snack if you’re in a tight spot with limited to no other edible options. (source) Range and Identification of Curly Dock Established plants emerge from the taproot in midspring, producing a robust rosette. Flower parts that adhere to the fruit of curly dock can be toothed or have tubercles. A stout, somewhat branched, yellow taproot may extend as deep as 4 feet, with side branches up to 3 feet long. Curly dock is also known as yellow dock, narrowleaf dock, sour dock, yaller dock, curled dock, Bitter Dock, Bloodwort, Coffee-weed, Garden-patience, Narrowdock, Out-sting and Winter Dock. Also, their leaves may be slightly rounder and broader than those of mature curly dock … The seed is enclosed within the fruit, a papery or corky 3-winged triangular structure. Curly dock comes from Eurasia, so it's an invasive species here in the Americas. Exotic species include Curled Dock ( R. crispus ), Clustered Dock ( R. conglomeratus ), Fiddle Dock ( R. pulcher ) and Broad-leaf Dock ( R. obtusifolius ). This perennial plant is not usually a problem in cultivated row crops. Flowering occurs primarily in June. The main compounds behind curly dock's health benefits are anthraquinones and flavonoids. Acknowledgements Contact UC IPM, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, © 2016 Regents of the University of California The first few leaves are egg shaped to football shaped with a rounded tip and a tapered base. Various upland gamebirds and granivorous songbirds eat the seeds of docks. It is found throughout California up to an elevation of 8200 feet (2500 m). Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature Top of page The Latin name Rumex crispus was given by Linnaeus and appears to be the only name used in modern literature. Click on a link or image below to view the complete guide. An ocrea surrounds the stem at the base of the petiole. Curly dock grows throughout the US and southern Canada. It goes by the common names Yellow Dock and Curly Dock. Curly dock (Rumex crispus), also known as sour dock, yellow dock, narrowleaf dock, or curled dock, is a perennial weed native to Europe, Asia, and parts of Africa. Stems are erect and 1 to 4 feet tall. Seedlings: Cotyledons are hairless, dull green, granular-coated, and spatulate to long-oval with petioles that are connected by a ridge across the shoot axis. Ditches, roadsides, wetlands, pastures, agronomic crop fields (especially those in perennial crops like alfalfa), orchards, disturbed, unmanaged sites, and disturbed moist places. Michigan State University has a detailed profile of non-chemical management for curly dock. Broad-leaved dock, on the other hand, has fatter leaves. Curly dock (Rumex crispus L.) Life Cycle: Simple perennial. Although similar to red sorrel, Rumex acetosella, the mature plant has stout stems, whereas red sorrel has slender red stems. Young leaves are in a basal rosette, smooth, egg-shaped, with red spots on the upper surface. This plant also produces flowers that are mostly green with a potential hint of … The flowering stem is loosely branched and green, non-showy flowers cluster along its upper portion in a whorl. Curly dock is invasive in North America, South America, New Zealand, and Australia. Younger plants tend to have foliage with less curly margins. Curly dock, a perennial broadleaf plant, usually grows in wet areas and is frequently associated with overwatering or standing water in low areas. Curly dock has a mild flavor, a subtly sour note, and a pleasant texture, making it a very versatile ingredient in the kitchen. Broad leaf dock top, curly dock bottom. sour dock yellow dock This plant and the related entity italicized and indented above can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Stems are solitary or occur in small groups from the root crown. Plants may be poisonous to livestock when ingested in quantity. Flowers/Fruit: Plants flowers primarily in June, but also throughout the summer. As soon as you catch a whiff of spring, you’ll start to see dock. In more detail, the calyx of curly dock has smooth margins while the calyx of broad-leaved dock has horned margins. Cornell University’s Turfgrass and Landscape Weed ID app. The seeds are useful and interestingly, yellow dock seeds are viable for up to 80 years. It is found throughout California up to an elevation of 8200 feet (2500 m). Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources by Erica Marciniec, www.wildfoodgirl.com Stare out across the empty lots and fields on the outskirts of Denver, Colorado, and you will see scattered clumps of dark green leaves towering above the grass. Look for it along roadsides, ditches, edges of wooded areas, and in fields. I may have planted it myself since I took some old seeds of a wide variety and just threw them around in a bare area of my yard. Leaves are alternate to one another along the stem forming a rosette. Nondiscrimination Statement, Accessibility Rumex obtusifolius is widely distributed throughout the world. Plants may be poisonous to livestock when ingested in quantity. Leaves are hairless. It is a member of the buckwheat family, Polygonaceae. Ditches, roadsides, wetlands, pastures, agronomic crop fields (especially those in perennial crops like alfalfa), orchards, disturbed, unmanaged sites, and disturbed m… Oder leaves have slightly wavy margins. Curly dock is an herbaceous perennial with tall, erect stems. Flowers have greenish sepals that become reddish brown at maturity. Get Flash Player The plant has both basal leaves and leaves on the stem, which are alternate. (To minnesippi) If you're not sure where it came from (neither you or your mother planted it) just make sure that it's really horseradish and not curly dock (see below) - if it's horseradish the root should smell like horseradish! A stout, somewhat branched, yellow taproot may extend as deep as 4 feet, with side branches up to 3 feet long. Leaves are alternate to one another along the stem. Curly Dock and Sheep Sorrel (Rumex acetosella) are the two known host plants of the butterfly, American Copper. Curly dock inhabits agricultural land and other disturbed areas. But the leaf shape is highly variable, both on a single plant, and from plant to plant. 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